There are toxic substances in grains that will cause Leaky Gut. Here is why it happens and what to do about it.
Many people react to the irritants in grains and do not know that they are setting the stage for autoimmunity. Others react to grains even after proper preparation of grains through soaking, sprouting and/or sourdough. There have been several studies that show – scientifically – that certain components in grains are detrimental to digestion and to good health.
Let me show you the research.
We know that a substance called zonulin opens up the spaces between the cells of the intestinal lining. That normally occurs, in order for nutrient and other molecules to get in and out of the intestine. However, when leaky gut is present, the spaces between the cells open up too much and this allows the larger protein molecules to get into the bloodstream where an immunologic reaction can take place. Once that happens, the body is primed to react to those proteins each and every time they appear.
We know that gliadin (the prolamine in gluten) causes zonulin levels to increase in people with the genetic pre-disposition to celiac disease. As zonulin levels go up, the tight junctions become lax, widening the space between the cells of the lining and increasing gut permiability. Now the gut membrane has spaces which allow large food particles into the body that shouldn’t be there. These are noticed by the immune system and targeted as foreign.
An immune response ensues and the worse it gets, the more damage to the enterocytes (cells of the intestinal lining) occurs. The more damaged the enterocytes, the leakier the gut gets and so on, in a vicious cycle. As more aspects of the immune system get involved (various cytokines involved in the cellular and innate immune systems) the worse things get, and in the process, the micro villi are damaged and eventually flattened. That is a condition that makes it very difficult to absorb nutrients.
Gliadin is a protein in wheat, that like gluten, is a trigger for people with the autoimmune disease celiac. However, this study published in the Scandiavian Journal of Gastroenterology in 2006 clearly showed that gliadin can affect zonulin even in people without the genetics for celiac. The researchers concluded that,
Based on our results, we concluded that gliadin activates zonulin signaling irrespective of the genetic expression of autoimmunity, leading to increased intestinal permeability to macromolecules.
This is extremely significant because it means that anyone who eats food containing gliadin is at risk for developing leaky gut from this food. What foods contain gliadin?
Grains contain gliadin.
The gluten-free diet is conventional treatment for celiac. Some people do very well with this but there is research that shows that only 66% of celiacs fully heal on the gluten-free diet after 5 years.
Lectins are manufactured by plants as a way to protect themselves from predators. They are most concentrated in the seed. Here again, soaking sprouting and sourdough may eliminate much of the lectins, but let’s face it — most people eat bread products that have not been properly prepared. Therefore they are at risk for digestive irritation and the resulting leaky gut.
A particularly harsh lectin called wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) is present in our modern day wheat (Triticum aestivum) and is very problematic. It is implicated in many reactions that cause cell death and stimulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines.
The WGA is actually more concentrated in whole wheat because it is located in the bran. It has been found to stimulate antibodies specific to to WGA with some ability to cross-react with other proteins.
This study published in Pediatric Allergy and Immunology in 1995 showed that immune reactive molecules (IgA and IgG) were higher when exposed to WGA as well as gliadin. They found that,
…levels of IgA and IgG to WGA as well as gliadin were significantly higher in celiac children on a gluten-containing diet, compared to children on gluten-free diet and reference children. These findings lend support to the concept that WGA is a biologically significant component of gluten.
Lectins have also been found to decrease the levels of something called “heat shock proteins” which protects the enterocytes of the gut lining from harmful substances taken in through food.
This study from Gut, in 2000 found that,
… WGA decrease(d) levels of stress proteins in rat gut and enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, leaving these cells less well protected against the potentially harmful content of the gut lumen.
This organic acid is present in the bran or hulls of all seeds (this includes all grains and nuts as well as soy) and blocks the uptake of critical minerals like phosphorus, calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc. Phytates have been studied extensively and findings show that phytates contribute to widespread mineral deficiencies in third world countries.
Analysis shows that calcium, magnesium, iron and zinc are present in the plant foods eaten in these areas, but the high phytate content of soy and rice based diets prevents their absorption.
Phytic acid also inhibits enzymes that we need to digest our food. These include pepsin, which is needed for the breakdown of proteins in the stomach, and amylase, which is needed for the breakdown of starch into sugar. It also inhibits trypsin, which is needed for protein digestion in the small intestine.
Clearly, eating foods high in phytic acid will reduce your body’s ability to digest and assimilate your food.
Gliadin, lectins and phytic acid are just three of the substances that may cause leaky gut to develop. Other causes include damage to the intestinal lining from antibiotics, steroids, NSAIDS, imbalance in gut bacteria, yeast overgrowth or dysbiosis, etc.
The solution is to go grain-free and eat a real food diet that includes foods that are very easy to digest and assimilate. Unprocessed, traditional foods without the anti-nutrients found in grains are full of the nutrients so desperately needed.